Journey to the West Bilingual Guide

Below is a bilingual guide to Journey to West (西游记). It alternates bite-sized chunks of the original text in Chinese with English translation. Enjoy!

Chapter 1

灵根育孕源流出 心性修持大道生

The Divine Root Conceives and the Spring Breaks Forth.
As the Heart’s Nature Is Cultivated, the Great Way Arises

诗曰:

混沌未分天地乱,茫茫渺渺无人见。

自从盘古破鸿蒙,开辟从兹清浊辨。

覆载群生仰至仁,发明万物皆成善。

欲知造化会元功,须看西游释厄传。

Before Chaos was divided, Heaven and Earth were one;
All was a shapeless blur, and no men had appeared.
Once Pan Gu destroyed the Enormous Vagueness
The separation of clear and impure began.
Living things have always tended towards humanity;
From their creation all beings improve.
If you want to know about Creation and Time,
Read Difficulties Resolved on the Journey to the West.

盖闻天地之数,有十二万九千六百岁为一元。将一元分为十二会,乃子、丑、寅、卯、辰、巳、午、未、申、酉、戌、亥之十二支也。每会该一万八百岁。

In the arithmetic of the universe, 129,600 years make one cycle. Each cycle can be divided into twelve phases: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI and XII, the twelve branches. Each phase lasts 10,800 years.

且就一日而论:子时得阳气,而丑则鸡鸣;寅不通光,而卯则日出;辰时食后,而巳则挨排;日午天中,而未则西蹉;申时晡而日落酉;戌黄昏而人定亥。譬于大数,若到戌会之终,则天地昏蒙而万物否矣。再去五千四百岁,交亥会之初,则当黑暗,而两间人物俱无矣,故曰混沌。又五千四百岁,亥会将终,贞下起元,近子之会,而复逐渐开明。邵康节曰:“冬至子之半,天心无改移。一阳初动处,万物未生时。”到此,天始有根。再五千四百岁,正当子会,轻清上腾,有日,有月,有星,有辰。日、月、星、辰,谓之四象。故曰,天开于子。又经五千四百岁,子会将终,近丑之会,而逐渐坚实。易曰:“大哉乾元!至哉坤元!万物资生,乃顺承天。”至此,地始凝结。再五千四百岁,正当丑会,重浊下凝,有水,有火,有山,有石,有土。水、火、山、石、土谓之五形。故曰,地辟于丑。又经五千四百岁,丑会终而寅会之初,发生万物。历曰:“天气下降,地气上升;天地交合,群物皆生。”至此,天清地爽,阴阳交合。再五千四百岁,正当寅会,生人,生兽,生禽,正谓天地人,三才定位。故曰,人生于寅。

Now within a single day, the positive begins at the time I; at II the cock crows; at III it is not quite light; at IV the sun rises; V is after breakfast; and at VI one does business. VII is when the sun reaches noon; at VIII it is slipping towards the West; IX is late afternoon; the sun sets at X; XI is dusk; and at XII people settle down for the night.

If you compare this with the big numbers, then at the end of Phase XI Heaven and Earth were still one, and no beings had appeared. 5,400 years later came the beginning of Phase XII, when all was darkness and there were still no people or other creatures; for this reason it was called Chaos. Another 5,400 years later Phase XII was drawing to a close and a new cycle was about to begin. As Phase I of the new era approached, gradually there was light.  As Shao Yong said,”When winter reaches the mid−point of Phase I, The heart of Heaven does not move. Where the Positive first appears, Nothing has yet come to life.”

At this time, Heaven first had a foundation. 5,400 years later, in the middle of Phase I, the light and pure rose upwards, and sun, moon, stars, and constellations were created. These were called the Four Images. Hence the saying that heaven began  in I.

Another 5,400 years later, when Phase I was nearing its end and Phase II was imminent, things gradually solidified. As the Book of Changes says, “Great is the Positive; far−reaching is the Negative! All things are endowed and born in accordance with Heaven.” This was when the earth began to congeal. After 5,400 more years came the height of Phase II, when the heavy and impure solidified, and water, fire, mountains, stone, and Earth came into being. These five were called the Five Movers. Therefore it is said that the Earth was created in Phase II.

After a further 5,400 years, at the end of Phase II and the beginning of the Phase III, living beings were created. In the words of the Book of the Calendar, “The essence of the sky came down and the essence of earth went up. Heaven and Earth  intermingled, and all creatures were born.” Then Heaven was bright and Earth was fresh, and the Positive intermingled with the Negative. 5,400 years later, when Phase III was at its height, men, birds and beasts were created. Thus the Three Powers−−Heaven, Earth and Man−−now had their set places. Therefore it is said that man was created in Phase III.

感盘古开辟,三皇治世,五帝定伦,世界之间,遂分为四大部洲:曰东胜神洲,曰西牛贺洲,曰南赡部洲,曰北俱芦洲。这部书单表东胜神洲。海外有一国土,名曰傲来国。国近大海,海中有一座山,唤为花果山。此山乃十洲之祖脉,三岛之来龙,自开清浊而立,鸿蒙判后而成。真个好山!有词赋为证。赋曰:

Moved by Pan Gu’s creation, the Three Emperors put the world in order and the Five Rulers laid down the moral code. The world was then divided into four great continents: The Eastern Continent of Superior Body, the Western Continent of Cattle−gift, the Southern Continent of Jambu and the Northern Continent of Kuru. This book deals only with the Eastern Continent of Superior Body. Beyond the seas there is a country called Aolai. This country is next to an ocean, and in the middle of the ocean is a famous island called the Mountain of Flowers and Fruit. This mountain is the ancestral artery of the Ten Continents, the origin of the Three Islands; it was formed when the clear and impure were separated and the Enormous Vagueness was divided. It is a really splendid mountain and there are some verses to prove it

势镇汪洋,威宁瑶海。势镇汪洋,潮涌银山鱼入穴;威宁瑶海,波翻雪浪蜃离渊。木火方隅高积上,东海之处耸崇巅。丹崖怪石,削壁奇峰。丹崖上,彩凤双鸣;削壁前,麒麟独卧。峰头时听锦鸡鸣,石窟每观龙出入。林中有寿鹿仙狐,树上有灵禽玄鹤。瑶草奇花不谢,青松翠柏长春。仙桃常结果,修竹每留云。一条涧壑藤萝密,四面原堤草色新。正是百川会处擎天柱,万劫无移大地根。

It stills the ocean with its might,
It awes the jade sea into calm.
It stills the ocean with its might:
Tides wash its silver slopes and fish swim into its caves
It awes the jade sea into calm:
Amid the snowy breakers the sea−serpent rises from the deep.
It rises high in the corner of the world where Fire and Wood meet;
Its summit towers above the Eastern Sea.
Red cliffs and strange rocks;
Beetling crags and jagged peaks.
On the red cliffs phoenixes sing in pairs;
Lone unicorns lie before the beetling crags.
The cry of pheasants is heard upon the peaks;
In caves the dragons come and go.
There are deer of long life and magic foxes in the woods;
Miraculous birds and black cranes in the trees.
There are flowers of jade and strange plants that wither not;
Green pine and bluish cypress ever in leaf,
Magic peaches always in fruit.
Clouds gather round the tall bamboo.
The wisteria grows thick around the mountain brook
And the banks around are newly−coloured with flowers.
It is the Heaven−supporting pillar where all the rivers meet,
The Earth’s root, unchanged through a myriad aeons.

那座山,正当顶上,有一块仙石。其石有三丈六尺五寸高,有二丈四尺围圆。三丈六尺五寸高,按周天三百六十五度;二丈四尺围圆,按政历二十四气。上有九窍八孔,按九宫八卦。四面更无树木遮阴,左右倒有芝兰相衬。盖自开辟以来,每受天真地秀,日精月华,感之既久,遂有灵通之意。内育仙胞,一日迸裂,产一石卵,似圆球样大。因见风,化作一个石猴,五官俱备,四肢皆全。便就学爬学走,拜了四方。目运两道金光,射冲斗府。惊动高天上圣大慈仁者玉皇大天尊玄穹高上帝,驾座金阙云宫灵霄宝店,聚集仙卿,见有金光焰焰,即命千里眼、顺风耳开南天门观看。二将果奉旨出门外,看的真,听的明。须臾回报道:“臣奉旨观听金光之处,乃东胜神洲海东傲来小国之界,有一座花果山,山上有一仙石,石产一卵,见风化一石猴,在那里拜四方,眼运金光,射冲斗府。如今服饵水食,金光将潜息矣。”玉帝垂赐恩慈曰:“下方之物,乃天地精华所生,不足为异。”

There was once a magic stone on the top of this mountain which was thirty−six feet five inches high and twenty−four feet round. It was thirty−six feet five inches high to correspond with the 365 degrees of the heavens, and twenty−four feet round to match the twenty−four divisions of the solar calendar. On top of it were nine apertures and eight holes, for the Nine Palaces and the Eight Trigrams. There were no trees around it to give shade, but magic fungus and orchids clung to its sides. Ever since Creation began it had been receiving the truth of Heaven, the beauty of Earth, the essence of the Sun and the splendour of the Moon; and as it had been influenced by them for so long it had miraculous powers. It developed a magic womb, which burst open one day to produce a stone egg about the size of a ball.

When the wind blew on this egg it turned into a stone monkey, complete with the five senses and four limbs. When the stone monkey had learned to crawl and walk, he bowed to each of the four quarters. As his eyes moved, two beams of golden light shot towards the Pole Star palace and startled the Supreme Heavenly Sage, the Greatly Compassionate Jade Emperor of the Azure Vault of Heaven, who was sitting surrounded by his immortal ministers on his throne in the Hall of Miraculous Mist in the Golden−gated Cloud Palace. When he saw the dazzling golden light he ordered Thousand−mile Eye and Wind−accompanying Ear to open the Southern Gate of Heaven and take a look.

The two officers went out through the gate in obedience to the imperial command, and while one observed what was going on the other listened carefully. Soon afterwards they reported back:

“In obedience to the Imperial Mandate your subjects observed and listened to the source of the golden light. We found that at the edge of the country of Aolai, which is East of the ocean belonging to the Eastern Continent of Superior Body, there is an island called the Mountain of Flowers and Fruit. A magic stone on the top of this mountain produced a magic egg, and when the wind blew on this egg it turned into a stone monkey which bowed to each of the four quarters. When he moved his eyes, golden light shot towards the Pole Star Palace; but now that he is eating and drinking, the golden light is gradually dying.” In his benevolence and mercy the Jade Emperor said, “Creatures down below are born of the essence of heaven and earth: there is nothing remarkable about him.”

那猴在山中,却会行走跳跃,食草木,饮涧泉,采山花,觅树果;与狼虫为伴,虎豹为群,獐鹿为友,猕猿为亲;夜宿石崖之下,朝游峰洞之中。真是“山中无甲子,寒尽不知年。”一朝天气炎热,与群猴避暑,都在松阴之下顽耍。你看他一个个:

On his mountain the monkey was soon able to run and jump, feed from plants and trees, drink from brooks and springs, pick mountain flowers and look for fruit. He made friends with the wolves, went around with the tigers and leopards, was on good terms with the deer, and had the other monkeys and apes for relations. At night he slept under the rockfaces, and he roamed around the peaks and caves by day. As the saying so rightly goes, “There is no calendar in the mountains, and when winter’s over you don’t know the time of year.” On hot mornings he and all the other monkeys would play under the shade of some pines to avoid the heat. Just look at them all:

跳树攀枝,采花觅果;抛弹子,邷么儿;跑沙窝,砌宝塔;赶蜻蜓,扑八蜡;参老天,拜菩萨;扯葛藤,编草帓;捉虱子,咬又掐;理毛衣,剔指甲;挨的挨,擦的擦;推的推,压的压;扯的扯,拉的拉,青松林下任他顽,绿水涧边随洗濯。

Climbing trees, picking flowers, looking for fruit;
Throwing pellets, playing knucklebones;
Running round sandy hollows, building stone pagodas;
Chasing dragonflies and catching locusts;
Worshipping the sky and visiting Bodhisattvas;
Tearing off creepers and weaving straw hats;
Catching fleas then popping them with their teeth and fingers;
Grooming their coats and sharpening their nails;
Beating, scratching, pushing, squashing, tearing and tugging;
Playing all over the place under the pine trees;
Washing themselves beside the green stream.

一群猴子耍了一会,却去那山涧中洗澡。见那股涧水奔流,真个似滚瓜涌溅。古云:“禽有禽言,兽有兽语。”众猴都道:“这股水不知是那里的水。我们今日赶闲无事,顺涧边往上溜头寻看源流,耍子去耶!”喊一声,都拖男挈女,呼弟呼兄,一齐跑来,顺涧爬山,直至源流之处,乃是一股瀑布飞泉。但见那:

After playing, the monkeys would go and bathe in the stream, a mountain torrent that tumbled along like rolling melons. There is an old saying, “Birds have bird language and, animals have animal talk.” All the monkeys said to each other, “I wonder where that water comes from. We’ve got nothing else to do today, so wouldn’t it be fun to go upstream and find its source?”

With a shout they all ran off, leading their children and calling to their brothers. They climbed up the mountain beside the stream until they reached its source, where a waterfall cascaded from a spring. They saw:

一派白虹起,千寻雪浪飞;海风吹不断,江月照还依。冷气分青嶂,馀流润翠微;潺湲名瀑布,真似挂帘帷。

One white rainbow arching,
A thousand strands of flying snow,
Unbroken by the sea winds,
Still there under the moon.
Cold air divides the greeny crags,
Splashes moisten the mountainside;
A noble waterfall cascades,
Hanging suspended like a curtain.

众猴拍手称扬道:“好水!好水!原来此处远通山脚之下,直接大海之波。”又道:“那一个有本事的,钻进去寻个源头出来,不伤身体者,我等即拜他为王。”连呼了三声,忽见丛杂中跳出一名石猴,应声高叫道:“我进去!我进去!”好猴!也是他:

The monkeys clapped their hands and explained with delight, “What lovely water. It must go all the way to the bottom of the mountain and join the waves of the sea.” Then one monkey made a suggestion: “If anyone is clever enough to go through the fall, find the source, and come out in one piece, let’s make him our king.” When this challenge had been shouted three times, the stone monkey leapt out from the crowd and answered at the top of his voice, “I’ll go, I’ll go.” Splendid monkey! Indeed:

今日芳名显,时来大运通;有缘居此地,王遣入仙宫。

Today he will make his name;
Tomorrow his destiny shall triumph.
He is fated to live here;
As a King he will enter the Immortals’ palace.

你看他瞑目蹲身,将身一纵,径跳入瀑布泉中,忽睁睛抬头观看,那里边却无水无波,明明朗朗的一架桥梁。他住了身,定了神,仔细再看,原来是座铁板桥。桥下之水,冲贯于石窍之间,倒挂流出去,遮闭了桥门。却又欠身上桥头,再走再看,却似有人家住处一般,真个好所在。但见那:

Watch him as he shuts his eyes, crouches, and springs, leaping straight into the waterfall. When he opened his eyes and raised his head to look round, he saw neither water nor waves. A bridge stood in front of him, as large as life. He stopped, calmed himself, took a closer look, and saw that the bridge was made of iron. The water that rushed under it poured out through a fissure in the rocks, screening the gateway to the bridge. He started walking towards the bridge, and as he looked he made out what seemed to be a house. It was a really good place. He saw:

翠藓堆蓝,白云浮玉,光摇片片烟霞。虚窗静室,滑凳板生花。乳窟龙珠倚挂,萦回满地奇葩。锅灶傍崖存火迹,樽罍靠案见肴渣。石座石床真可爱,石盆石碗更堪夸。又见那一竿两竿修竹,三点五点梅花。几树青松常带雨,浑然相个人家。

Emerald moss piled up in heaps of blue,
White clouds like drifting jade,
While the light flickered among wisps of coloured mist.
A quiet house with peaceful windows,
Flowers growing on the smooth bench;
Dragon pearls hanging in niches,
Exotic blooms all around.
Traces of fire beside the stove,
Scraps of food in the vessels by the table.
Adorable stone chairs and beds,
Even better stone plates and bowls.
One or two tall bamboos,
Three or four sprigs of plum blossom,
A few pines that always attract rain,
All just like a real home.

看罢多时,跳过桥中间,左右观看,只见正当中有一石碣。碣上有一行楷书大字,镌着“花果山福地,水帘洞洞天。”石猴喜不自胜,急抽身往外便走,复瞑目蹲身,跳出水外,打了两个呵呵道:“大造化!大造化!”众猴把他围住,问道:“里面怎么样?水有多深?”石猴道:“没水!没水!原来是一座铁板桥。桥那边是一座天造地设的家当。”众猴道:“怎见得是个家当?”石猴笑道:“这股水乃是桥下冲贯石桥,倒挂下来

遮闭门户的。桥边有花有树,乃是一座石房。房内有石窝、石灶、石碗、石盆、石床、石凳。中间一块石碣上,镌着‘花果山福地,水帘洞洞天。’真个是我们安身之处。里面且是宽阔,容得千百口老小。我们都进去住也,省得受老天之气。这里边:

He took a good, long look and then scampered to the middle of the bridge, from where he noticed a stone tablet. On the tablet had been carved in big square letters: HAPPY LAND OF THE MOUNTAIN OF FLOWERS AND FRUIT, CAVE HEAVEN OF THE WATER CURTAIN. The stone monkey was beside himself with glee. He rushed away, shut his eyes, crouched, and leapt back through the waterfall.

“We’re in luck, we’re in luck,” he said with a chuckle. All the other monkeys crowded round him asking, “What’s it like in there? How deep is the water?” “There’s no water, none at all,” replied the stone monkey. “There’s an iron bridge, and on the other side of the bridge there’s a house that must have been made by Heaven and Earth.”

“How ever could you see a house there?” the other monkeys asked.

The stone monkey chuckled again. “The water here comes under the bridge and through the rocks, and it hides the gateway to the bridge from view. There are flowers and trees by the bridge, and a stone house too. Inside the house are stone rooms, a stone stove, stone bowls, stone plates, stone beds, and even stone benches. In the middle of it all is a tablet which says ‘Happy Land of the Mountain of Flowers and Fruit, Cave Heaven of the Water Curtain’. It’s just the place for us to settle down in−−there’s room there for thousands. Let’s all move in, then we won’t have to put up with any more nonsense from heaven. In there:

刮风有处躲,下雨好存身。霜雪全无惧,雷声永不闻。

烟霞常照耀,祥瑞每蒸熏。松竹年年秀,奇花日日新。”

We can hide there from the wind,
And shelter from the rain,
With nothing to fear from frost and snow,
And never a rumble of thunder.
The coloured mists glow bright
And the place smells lucky.
The pine and bamboo will always be beautiful,
And rare flowers blossom every day.”

众猴听得,个个欢喜,都道:“你还先走,带我们进去,进去!”石猴却又瞑目蹲身,往里一跳,叫道:“都随我进来!进来!”那些猴有胆大的,都跳进去了;胆小的,一个个伸头缩颈,抓耳挠腮,大声叫喊,缠一会,也都进去了。跳过桥头,一个个抢盆夺碗,占灶争床,搬过来,移过去,正是猴性顽劣,再无一个宁时,只搬得力倦神疲方止。石猿端坐上面道:“列位呵,‘人而无信,不知其可。’你们才说有本事进得来,出得去,不伤身体者,就拜他为王。我如今进来又出去,出去又进来,寻了这一个洞天与列位安眠稳睡,各享成家之福,何不拜我为王?”众猴听说,即拱伏无违。一个个序齿排班,朝上礼拜,都称“千岁大王”。自此,石猴高登王位,将“石”字儿隐了,遂称美猴王。有诗为证。诗:

The other monkeys were all so delighted to hear this that they said, “You go first and take us with you.” The stone monkey shut his eyes, crouched, and leapt in again, shouting, “Follow me in, follow me in.”

The braver monkeys all jumped through. The more timid ones peered forward, shrank back, rubbed their ears, scratched their cheeks, shouted, and yelled at the top of their voices, before going in, all clinging to each other. After rushing across the bridge they all grabbed plates and snatched bowls, bagged stoves and fought over beds, and moved everything around. Monkeys are born naughty and they could not keep quiet for a single moment until they had worn themselves out moving things around.
The stone monkey sat himself in the main seat and said, “Gentlemen, A man who breaks his word is worthless. Just now you said that if anyone was clever enough to come in here and get out again in one piece, you’d make him king. Well, then. I’ve come in and gone out, and gone out and come in. I’ve found you gentlemen a cave heaven where you can sleep in peace and all settle down to live in bliss. Why haven’t you made me king?”

On hearing this all the monkeys bowed and prostrated themselves, not daring to disobey. They lined up in groups in order of age and paid their homage as at court, all acclaiming him as the “Great King of a Thousand Years.” The stone monkey then took the throne, made the word “stone” taboo, and called himself Handsome Monkey King. There is a poem to prove it that goes:

三阳交泰产群生,仙石胞含日月精。

借卵化猴完大道,假他名姓配丹成。

All things are born from the Three positives;
The magic stone was quick with the essence of sun and moon.
An egg was turned into a monkey to complete the Great Way;
He was lent a name so that the elixir would be complete.

内观不识因无相,外合明知作有形。 历代人人皆属此,称王称圣任纵横。美猴王领一群猿猴、猕猴、马猴等,分派了君臣佐使,朝游花果山,暮宿水帘洞,合契同情,不入飞鸟之丛,不从走兽之类,独自为王,不胜欢乐。是以:

Looking inside he perceives nothing because it has no form, Outside he uses his intelligence to create visible things. Men have always been like this: Those who are called kings and sages do just as they wish.

Taking control of his host of monkeys, apes, gibbons and others, the Handsome Monkey King divided them into rulers and subjects, assistants and officers. In the morning they roamed the Mountain of Flowers and Fruit and in the evening they settled down for the night in the Water Curtain Cave. They made a compact that they would not join the ranks of the birds or go with the running beasts. They had their own king, and they thoroughly enjoyed themselves.

春采百花为饮食,夏寻诸果作生涯。

秋收芋栗延时节,冬觅黄精度岁华。

In spring they picked flowers for food and drink,
In summer they lived off fruit.
In autumn they gathered tares and chestnuts,
They got through the winter on Solomon’s−seal.

美猴王享乐天真,何期有三五百载。一日,与群猴喜宴之间,忽然忧恼,堕下泪来。众猴慌忙罗拜道:“大王何为烦恼?”猴王道:“我虽在欢喜之时,却有一点儿远虑,故此烦恼。”众猴又笑道:“大王好不知足!我等日日欢会,在仙山福地,古洞神州,不伏麒麟辖,不伏凤凰管,又不伏人间王位所拘束,自由自在,乃无量之福,为何远虑而忧也?”猴王道:“今日虽不归人王法律,不惧禽兽威服,将来年老血衰,暗中有阎王老子管着,一旦身亡,可不枉生世界之中,不得久住天人之内?”众猴闻此言,一个个掩面悲啼,俱以无常为虑。

The Handsome Monkey King’s innocent high spirits could not, of course, last three or four hundred years. One day he suddenly felt depressed during a banquet with his monkey host, and he started to weep. The startled monkeys crowded round, bowed to him and asked, “What’s the matter, Your Majesty?” “Although I’m happy now,” the Monkey King replied, “I’m worried about the future. That’s what’s getting me down.”

The other monkeys laughed and said, “Your Majesty is being greedy. We have parties every day; we live in a mountain paradise, in an ancient cave in a divine continent. We are spared the rule of unicorns, the domination of phoenixes, and the restraints of human kings. We are free to do just as we like−−we are infinitely lucky. Why make yourself miserable worrying about the future?”

To this the Monkey King replied, “Yes, we don’t have to submit to the laws and regulations of human kings, and we don’t live in terror of the power of birds and beasts. But the time will come when we are old and weak, and the underworld is controlled by the King of Hell. When the time comes for us to die, we won’t be able to go on living among the Blessed, and our lives will have been in vain.”

All the monkeys covered their faces and wept as everyone of them thought about death.

只见那班部中,忽跳出一个通背猿猴,厉声高叫道:“大王若是这般远虑,真所谓道心开发也!如今五虫之内,惟有三等名色,不伏阎王老子所管。”猴王道:“你知那三等人?”猿猴道:“乃是佛与仙与神圣三者,躲过轮回,不生不灭,与天地山川齐寿。”猴王道:“此三者居于何所?”猿猴道:“他只在阎浮世界之中,古洞仙山之内。”猴王闻之,满心欢喜,道:“我明日就辞汝等下山,云游海角,远涉天涯,务必访此三者,学一个不老长生,常躲过阎君之难。”噫!这句话,顿教跳出轮回网,致使齐天大圣成。众猴鼓掌称扬,都道:“善哉!善哉!我等明日越岭登山,广寻些果品,大设筵宴送大王也。”

Suddenly a gibbon jumped out from their ranks and shrieked in a piercing voice, “If Your Majesty is thinking so far ahead, this is the beginning of enlightenment. Now of the Five Creatures, there are only three that do not come under the jurisdiction of the King of Hell.”

“Do you know which they are?” asked the Monkey King.

“Yes,” the ape replied. “They are the Buddhas, the Immortals and the Sages. They are free from the Wheel of Reincarnation. They are not born and they do not die. They are as eternal as Heaven and Earth, as the mountains and the rivers.”

“Where do they live?” the Monkey King asked. “Only in the human world,” the ape replied, “in ancient caves on magic mountains.”

The Monkey King was delighted to hear this. “I shall leave you all tomorrow,” he said, “and go down the mountain. If I have to, I’ll roam the corners of the oceans and go to the edge of the sky to find these three kinds of beings and discover the secret of eternal youth that will keep us out of the clutches of the King of Hell for ever.”

Goodness! Because of these words he was to learn how to be free from the Wheel of Reincarnation and become the Great Sage Equaling Heaven. All the monkeys clapped with approval and said, “Great! Great! Tomorrow we’ll climb all over the mountain and get lots of fruit to give Your Majesty a really big banquet to send you off.”

次日,众猴果去采仙桃,摘异果,刨山药,□【左“属”右“立刀”】黄精,芝兰香蕙,瑶草奇花,般般件件,整整齐齐,摆开石凳石桌,排列仙酒仙肴。但见那:

The next day the monkeys set out to pick magic peaches, gather rare fruits, dig out yams, and cut Solomon’s−seal. Magic fungus and fragrant orchid were collected, and everything was set on the stone benches and the stone tables, with fairy wine and dishes. You could see:

金丸珠弹,红绽黄肥。金丸珠弹腊樱桃,色真甘美;红绽黄肥熟梅子,味果香酸。鲜龙眼,肉甜皮薄;火荔枝,核小囊红。林檎碧实连枝献,枇杷缃苞带叶擎。兔头梨子鸡心枣,消渴除烦更解酲。香桃烂杏,美甘甘似玉液琼浆;脆李杨梅,酸荫荫如脂酸膏酪。红囊黑子熟西瓜,四瓣黄皮大柿子。石榴裂破,丹砂粒现火晶珠;芋栗剖开,坚硬肉团金玛瑙。胡桃银杏可传茶,椰子葡萄能做酒。榛松榧柰满盘盛,橘蔗柑橙盈案摆。熟煨山药,烂煮黄精,捣碎茯苓并薏苡,石锅微火漫炊羹。人间纵有珍馐味,怎比山猴乐更宁?

Golden pills and pearl pellets,
Bursting red and plump yellow.
The golden pills and pearl pellets were winter cherries, beautiful and sweet;
The bursting red and plump yellow were ripe plums, tasty and sharp.
Fresh, sweet−fleshed longans with thin skins.
Fiery lichees with tiny stones in a red sack.
Branch after branch of crab−apples,
Yellow−skinned loquats with their leaves on.
Rabbit−head pears and chicken−heart jujubes
To quench your thirst, remove your cares, and sober you up.
Fragrant peaches and tender apricots,
As sweet and luscious as jade wine.
Crisp plums and arbutus,
As sharp as glistening yogurt.
Ripe melons with red coats and black seeds,
Big, four−sectioned persimmons with yellow skins.
Bursting pomegranates:
Cinnabar pips shining like fire−crystal pearls.
Opened water−chestnuts
With firm round flesh like golden agate.
Walnuts and gingko fruits to eat with tea;
Coconuts and grapes to make into wine.
Dishes loaded with pine cones, yew−nuts, filberts, and crab−apples;
Tangerines, sugar−cane and oranges covering the table.
Hot roast yams,
Tender boiled Solomon’s−seal.
Pounded china−root and Job’s tears.
Simmered in soup in a stone−pot.
Although we humans have rare delicacies to eat,
We are no happier than those monkeys in the mountains.

群猴尊美猴王上坐,各依齿肩排于下边,一个个轮流上前,奉酒,奉花,奉果,痛饮了一日。次日,美猴王早起,教:“小的们,替我折些枯松,编作筏子,取个竹竿作篙,收拾些果品之类,我将去也。”果独自登筏,尽力撑开,飘飘荡荡,径向大海波中,趁天风,来渡南赡部洲地界。

这一去,正是那:

The host of monkeys ushered the Handsome Monkey King to the seat of honour and sat down below him according to age. Each of them took it in turns to bring him wine, flowers, and fruit, and they drank hard for a whole day. The next morning the Handsome Monkey King got up early and ordered, “Children, tear down some old pines and make me a raft. Find a bamboo pole to punt with and load it up with fruit. I’m going.”

He went aboard the raft all by himself, pushed off with all his might, and floated off towards the waves of the ocean. He intended to sail with the wind and cross over to the Southern Jambu Continent.

天产仙猴道行隆,离山驾筏趁天风。

飘洋过海寻仙道,立志潜心建大功。

有分有缘休俗愿,无忧无虑会元龙。

The heaven−born monkey, whose conduct was so noble,
Left his island to drift with heaven’s winds.
He sailed oceans and seas to find the Way of Immortality,
Deeply determined to do a great deed.
The predestined one should not have vulgar longings;
He can attain the primal truth without care or worry.
He is bound to find a kindred spirit,
To explain the origins and the laws of nature.

料应必遇知音者,说破源流万法通。也是他运至时来,自登木筏之后,连日东南风紧,将他送到西北岸前,乃是南赡部洲地界。持篙试水,偶得浅水,弃了筏子,跳上岸来,只见海边有人捕鱼、打雁、挖蛤、淘盐。他走近前,弄个把戏,妆个□【上左“齿”右“可”,下“女”】虎,吓得那些人丢筐弃网,四散奔跑。将那跑不动的拿住一个,剥了他衣裳,也学人穿在身上,摇摇摆摆,穿州过府,在市尘中,学人礼,学人话。朝餐夜宿,一心里访问佛仙神圣之道,觅个长生不老之方。见世人都是为名为利之徒,更无一个为身命者。正是那:

He had chosen just the right time for his journey. After he boarded his raft the Southeasterly wind blew hard for days on end and bore him to the Northwestern shore of the Southern Continent. Testing the depth of the water with his pole he found that it was shallow, so he abandoned the raft and jumped ashore. He saw humans by the coast, fishing, hunting geese, gathering clams, and extracting salt.

He went up to them, leaping around and making faces, which so scared them that they dropped their baskets and nets and fled in all directions as fast as they could. The Monkey King grabbed one of them who was a poor runner, stripped him of his clothes, and dressed himself in them like a human.

He swaggered through the provinces and prefectures, learning human behavior and human speech in the market places. Whether he was eating his breakfast or going to bed at nigh he was always asking about Buddhas, Immortals and Sages, and seeking the secret of eternal youth. He observed that the people of the world were too concerned with fame and fortune to be interested in their fates.

争名夺利几时休?早起迟眠不自由!

骑着驴骡思骏马,官居宰相望王侯。

只愁衣食耽劳碌,何怕阎君就取勾?

继子荫孙图富贵,更无一个肯回头!

When will the struggle for fame and fortune end?
Toiling from morning till night, never pleasing yourself.
Those who ride donkeys long for stallions,
The Prime Minister always wants to be a prince.
They only worry about having to stop work to eat or dress;
They never fear that the King of Hell will come to get them.
When trying to ensure their sons and grandsons inherit their wealth and power,
They have no time to stop and think.

猴王参访仙道,无缘得遇。在于南赡部洲,串长城,游小县,不觉八九年馀。忽行至西洋大海,他想着海外必有神仙。独自个依前作筏,又飘过西海,直至西牛贺洲地界。登岸偏访多时,忽见一座高山秀丽,林麓幽深。他也不怕狼虫,不惧虎豹,登山顶上观看。果是好山:

Although he asked about the way of the Immortals, the Monkey King was unable to meet one. He spent eight or nine years in the Southern Jambu Continent, going through its great walls and visiting its little counties. When he found that he had reached the Great Western Ocean he thought that there must be Sages and Immortals on the other side of it, so he made himself another raft like the last one, and floated across the Western Ocean until he came to the Western Continent of Cattle−gift.

He went ashore and made extensive and lengthy enquiries until one day he came upon a high and beautiful mountain, thickly forested on its lower slopes. Not fearing wolves, and undaunted by tigers or leopards, he climbed to the summit to see the view. It was indeed a fine mountain:

千峰开戟,万仞开屏。日映岚光轻锁翠,雨收黛色冷含青。枯藤缠老树,古渡界幽程。奇花瑞草,修竹乔松。修竹乔松,万载常青欺福地;奇花瑞草,四时不谢赛蓬瀛。幽鸟啼声近,源泉响溜清。重重谷壑芝兰绕,处处巉崖苔藓生。起伏峦头龙脉好,必有高人隐姓名。

A thousand peaks brandishing halberds,
Screens ten thousand measures tall.
In the sunlight the mountain haze is lightly touched with blue;
After the rain the black rocks look coldly green.
Withered creepers coil round ancient trees,
And the old ford marks the bounds of the mysterious.
Strange flowers and precious plants,
Flourishing in all four seasons, rivaling fairyland.
The nearby cry of a hidden bird,
The clear running of a spring.
Valley upon valley of mushroom and orchid,
Lichen grows all over the cliffs.
The range rises and dips in dragon−like majesty.
Surely there mush be lofty hermits here.

正观看间,忽闻得林深之处,有人言语,急忙趋步,穿入林中,侧耳而听,原来是歌唱之声。歌曰:

As he was looking at the view the Monkey King heard a human voice coming from the depths of the forest. He rushed into the trees, and when he cocked his ear to listen he heard a song:

“观棋柯烂,伐木丁丁,云边谷口徐行,卖薪沽酒,狂笑自陶情。苍迳秋高,对月枕松根,一觉天明。认旧林,登崖过岭,持斧断枯藤。收来成一担,行歌市上,易米三升。更无些子争竞,时价平平,不会机谋巧算,没荣辱,恬淡延生。相逢处,非仙即道,静坐讲黄庭。”

“Watching the chess game I cut through the rotten,
Felling trees, ding, ding,
Strolling at the edge of the cloud and the mouth of the valley,
I sell firewood to buy wine,
Cackling with laughter and perfectly happy.
I pillow myself on a pine root, looking up at the moon.
When I wake up it is light.
Recognizing the old forest
I scale cliffs and cross ridges,
Cutting down withered creepers with my axe.
When I’ve gathered a basketful
I walk down to the market with a song,
And trade it for three pints of rice.
Nobody else competes with me,
So prices are stable.
I don’t speculate or try sharp practice,
Couldn’t care less what people think of me,
Calmly lengthening my days.
The people I meet
Are Taoists and Immortals,
Sitting quietly and expounding the Yellow Court.”

美猴王听得此言,满心欢喜道:“神仙原来藏在这里!”急忙跳入里面,仔细再看,乃是一个樵子,在那里举斧砍柴。但看他打扮非常:

The Monkey King was overjoyed to hear this, and he said with glee, “So this is where the Immortals have been hiding.” He bounded deeper into the woods for a closer look and saw that the singer was a woodcutter cutting firewood. He was wearing the most unusual clothes:

头上戴箬笠,乃是新笋初脱之箨。身上穿布衣,乃是木绵捻就之纱。腰间系环绦,乃是老蚕口吐之丝。足下踏草履,乃是枯莎搓就之爽。手执衠钢斧,担挽火麻绳。扳松劈枯树,争似此樵能!

On his head he wore a hat
Woven from the first skin shed by new bamboo shoots.
The clothes on his body
Were made of yam from the wild cotton−tree.
The belt round his waist
Was of silk from an old silkworm.
The straw sandals under his feet
Had straps torn from rotten sago trees.
In his hand he held a steel axe
On his back he carried a hempen rope
At climbing pines and felling dead trees,
Who was a match for this woodcutter?

猴王近前叫道:“老神仙!弟子起手。”那樵汉慌忙丢了斧,转身答礼道:“不当人!不当人!我拙汉衣食不全,怎敢当‘神仙’二字?”猴王道:“你不是神仙,如何说出神仙的话来?”樵夫道:“我说甚么神仙话?”猴王道:“我才来至林边,只听的你说:‘相逢处非仙即道,静坐讲黄庭。’黄庭乃道德真言,非神仙而何?”樵夫笑道:“实不瞒你说,这个词名做满庭芳,乃一神仙教我的。那神仙与我舍下相邻。他见我家事劳苦,日常烦恼,教我遇烦恼时,即把这词儿念念。一则散心,二则解困。我才有些不足处思虑,故此念念。不期被你听了。”猴王道:“你家既与神仙相邻,何不从他修行?学得个不老之方?却不是好?”樵夫道:“我一生命苦,自幼蒙父母养育至八九岁,才知人事,不幸父丧,母亲居孀。再无兄弟姊妹,只我一人,没奈何,早晚侍奉。如今母老,一发不敢抛离。却又田园荒芜,衣食不足,只得斫两束柴薪,挑向市尘之间,货几文钱,籴几升米,自炊自造,安排些茶饭,供养老母,所以不能修行。”

The Monkey King went closer and called to him. “Old Immortal, your disciple greets you.”

The woodcutter dropped his axe in astonishment and turned round to say, “No, no. I don’t even have enough to eat or drink, so how can I possibly let you call me an Immortal?”

“If you’re not an Immortal,” the Monkey King said, “why do you talk like one?”

“I don’t talk like an Immortal,” the woodcutter said.

“At the edge of the wood just now,” the Monkey King replied, “I heard you say, ‘The people I meet are Taoists and Immortals, sitting quietly and expounding the Mantingfang.’ The Mantingfang contains the truth about the Way, so if you’re not an Immortal, what are you?”

The woodcutter laughed. “It’s quite true that the song is called ‘The Fragrance of the Mantingfang,’ and an Immortal who lives near my hut taught me it. He said he saw how hard I had to work and how I was always worried, so he made me sing this song when things were getting me down. It lightens my cares and makes me forget my weariness. I was singing it just now because I had some problems on my mind, and I never imagined that you would be listening.”

“If you’ve got an Immortal for a neighbour, you ought to learn from him how to cultivate your conduct and get him to teach you a recipe for eternal youth.”

“I’ve had a hard life,” the woodcutter replied. “My mother and father brought me up

till I was about eight, and just when I was beginning to know about life my father died. My mother remained a widow, and I had no brothers or sisters. As I was the only child I had to look after my mother morning and night. Now she is old that I can’t possibly leave her. Our land is so overgrown that I can’t grow enough to feed and clothe both of us, so I have to cut a couple of bundles of firewood to sell in the market for a handful of coppers to buy the few pints of rice that I cook for myself and for my mother. That’s why I can’t cultivate my conduct.”

猴王道:“据你说起来,乃是一个行孝的君子,向后必有好处。但望你指与我那神仙住处,却好拜访去也。”樵夫道:“不远,不远。此山叫做灵台方寸山。山中有座斜月三星洞。那洞中有一个神仙,称名须菩提祖师。那祖师出去的徒弟,也不计其数,见今还有三四十人从他修行。你顺那条小路儿,向南行七八里远近,即是他家了。”猴王用手扯住樵夫道:“老兄,你便同我去去。若还得了好处,决不忘你指引之恩。”樵夫道:“你这汉子,甚不通变。我方才这般与你说了,你还不省?假若我与你去了,却不误了我的生意?老母何人奉养?我要斫柴,你自去,自去。”

“From what you say,” the Monkey King replied, “you’re a filial son and a gentleman−−you’re bound to be rewarded for it one day. But I’d be grateful if you could show me where that Immortal lives, so that I can go and pay him my respects.”

The woodcutter said, “It’s not far from here. This mountain is the Spirit Tower Heart Mountain, and in it there is the Cave of the Setting Moon and the Three Stars. In that cave lives an Immortal called the Patriarch Subhuti. I don’t know how many disciples he has trained−−there are thirty or forty of them cultivating their conduct with him at the moment. If you take that path South for two or three miles you’ll reach his home.”

The Monkey King tugged at the woodcutter and said, “Take me there, Elder Brother. If I get anything out of this, I won’t forget your kindness.” “You idiot,” the woodcutter replied, “didn’t you understand what I told you just now? If I went with you I wouldn’t be able to earn my living, and who would look after my poor old mother then? I’ve got to get on with my woodcutting. Go by yourself.”

猴王听说,只得相辞。出深林,找上路径,过一山坡,约有七八里远,果然望见一座洞府。挺身观看,真好去处!但见:

After hearing this the Monkey King had to take his leave. He came out of the forest and found the path, which led up a mountain slope for two or three miles, when he saw the cave. He pulled himself up to his full height to take a look, and it was a really magnificent place:

烟霞散彩,日月摇光。千株老柏,万节修篁。千株老柏,带雨半空青冉冉;万节修篁,含烟一壑色苍苍。门外奇花布锦,桥边瑶草喷香。石崖突兀青苔润,悬壁高张翠藓长。时闻仙鹤唳,每见凤凰翔。仙鹤唳时,声振九皋霄汉远;凤凰翔起,翎毛五色彩云光。玄猿白鹿随隐见,金狮玉象任行藏。细观灵福地,真个赛天堂!

Misty clouds scattered colours,
Sun and moon shimmered bright.
A thousand ancient cypresses,
Ten thousand lofty bamboos.
A thousand ancient cypresses,
A soft green drawing the rain from the sky.
Ten thousand lofty bamboos,
And a misty valley is azure blue.
Outside the gate rare flowers spread brocade;
Beside the bridge wafts the scent of jade flowers.
Rocky crags jut, glossy with green moss;
On overhanging cliffs blue lichen grows.
Sometimes the call of the crane is heard
And often you see the phoenix soar.
The call of the crane
Echoes beyond the Ninth Heaven and the Milky Way.
When the phoenix soars,
The brilliance of its wings colours the clouds.
Black apes and white deer can be just made out;
Golden lions and jade elephants prefer to keep hidden.
If you look closely at this happy land,
You will see that it rivals paradise.

又见那洞门紧闭,静悄悄杳无人迹。忽回头,见崖头立一石牌,约有三丈馀高、八尺馀阔,上有一行十个大字,乃是“灵台方寸山,斜月三星洞”。美猴王十分欢喜道:“此间人果是朴实。果有此山此洞。”看勾多时,不敢敲门。且去跳上松枝梢头,摘松子吃了顽耍。少顷间,只听得呀的一声,洞门开处,里面走出一个仙童,真个丰姿英伟,像貌清奇,比寻常俗子不同。但见他:

He saw that the doors of the cave were shut fast, and that everything was still, with no signs of any people. He turned round and noticed that there was a stone tablet about thirty feet high and eight feet wide at the top of the cliff. On it was carved in enormous letters: SPIRIT−TOWER HEART MOUNTAIN, CAVE OF THE SETTING MOON AND THE THREE STARS.

The Monkey King exclaimed with delight, “The people here really are honest. The mountain and the cave do exist.” He took a good long look, but did not dare to knock on the door. He climbed to the and of a pine branch and ate some pine seeds to amuse himself. Before long the doors of the cave opened with a creak, and an immortal boy came out. In the nobility of his bearing and the exceptional purity of his features he was completely different from an ordinary boy

髽髻双丝绾,宽袍两袖风。貌和身自别,心与相俱空。

物外长年客,山中永寿童。一尘全不染,甲子任翻腾。

His hair was bound with a pair of silken bands,
His flowing gown had two capacious sleeves.
His face and body were naturally distinguished;
His mind and appearance were both empty.
For many years a guest beyond the world of things,
An eternal child amid the mountains,
Untouched by any speck of dust,
He let the years go tumbling by.

那童子出得门来,高叫道:“甚么人在此搔扰?”猴王扑的跳下树来,上前躬身道:“仙童,我是个访道学仙之弟子,更不敢在此搔扰。”仙童笑道:“你是个访道的么?”猴王道:“是。”童子道:“我家师父,正才下榻,登坛讲道。还未说出原由,就教我出来开门。说:‘外面有个修行的来了,可去接待接待。’想必就是你了?”猴王笑道:“是我,是我。”童子道:“你跟我进来。”

When this boy had come out he shouted, “Who’s making that row out here?”

The Monkey King scampered down the tree, went up to him, and said with a bow, “Immortal child, I am a disciple who has come to ask about the Way and study under the Immortal. The last thing I’d do would be to make a row here.”

The boy laughed. “So you’ve come to ask about the Way, have you?” “Yes,” the Monkey King replied.

“Our master has just got up,” the boy said, “and has now mounted the dais to expound the Way. Before he had started to explain about origins he told me to open the door. He said, ‘There is someone outside who wants to cultivate his conduct. Go and welcome him.’ I suppose he must have meant you.”

“Yes, he meant me,” the Monkey King said with a smile. “Come with me,” the boy said.

这猴王整衣端肃,随童子径入洞天深处观看:一层层深阁琼楼,一进进珠宫贝阙,说不尽那静室幽居,直至瑶台之下。见那菩提祖师端坐在台上,两边有三十个小仙侍立台下。果然是:

The Monkey King straightened his clothes and followed the boy deep into the depths of the cave. He saw majestic pavilions and towers of red jade, pearl palaces and gateways of cowry, and countless rooms of silence and secluded cells leading all the way to a jasper dais. He saw the Patriarch Subhuti sitting on the dais and thirty−six minor Immortals standing below it

大觉金仙没垢姿,西方妙相祖菩提;

不生不灭三三行,全气全神万万慈。

空寂自然随变化,真如本性任为之;

与天同寿庄严体,历劫明心大法师。

A golden Immortal of great enlightenment, free from filth,
Subhuti, the marvel of the Western World.
Neither dying nor born, he practices the triple meditation,
His spirit and soul entirely benevolent.
In empty detachment he follows the changes;
Having found his true nature he lets it run free.
As eternal as Heaven, and majestic in body,
The great teacher of the Law is enlightened through aeons.

美猴王一见,倒身下拜,磕头不计其数,口中只道:“师父!师父!我弟子志心朝礼!志心朝礼!”祖师道:“你是那方人氏?且说个乡贯姓名明白,再拜。”猴王道:“弟子东胜神洲傲来国花果山水帘洞人氏。”祖师喝令:“赶出去!他本是个撒诈捣虚之徒,那里修甚么道果!”猴王慌忙磕头不住道:“弟子是老实之言,决无虚诈。”祖师道:“你既老实,怎么说东胜神洲?那去处到我这里,隔两重大海,一座南赡部洲,如何就得到此?”猴王叩头道:“弟子飘洋过海,登界游方,有十数个年头,方才访到此处。”

As soon as the Handsome Monkey King saw him he bowed low and knocked his head on the ground before him many times, saying, “Master, master, your disciple pays his deepest respects.”

“Where are you from?” the Patriarch asked. “You must tell me your name and address before you can become my pupil.”

“I come from the Water Curtain Cave in the Flowers and Fruit Mountain in the land of Aolai in the Eastern Continent of Superior Body,” replied the Monkey King.

“Throw him out,” the Patriarch roared. “He’s a liar and a cheat, and even if he tried cultivating his conduct he would get nowhere.”

The Monkey King desperately kept hitting his head on the ground and said, “Your disciple spoke the truth. I promise I wasn’t lying.”

The Patriarch asked, “If you were speaking the truth, why did you say that you came from the Eastern Continent of Superior Body? Between here and the Eastern Continent there are two seas and the Southern Jambu Continent, so how could you possibly have come here from there?”

The Monkey King, still kowtowing, replied, “I sailed across seas and oceans, crossed frontiers and wandered through many countries for over ten years before I arrived here.”

祖师道:“既是逐渐行来的也罢。你姓甚么?”猴王又道:“我无性。人若骂我,我也不恼;若打我,我也不嗔,只是陪个礼儿就罢了。一生无性。”祖师道:“不是这个性。你父母原来姓甚么?”猴王道:“我也无父母。”祖师道:“既无父母,想是树上生的?”猴王道:“我虽不是树生,却是石里长的。我只记得花果山上有一块仙石,其年石破,我便生也。”祖师闻言,暗喜道:“这等说,却是天地生成的。你起来走走我看。” 猴王纵身跳起,拐呀拐的走了两遍。祖师笑道:“你身躯虽是鄙陋,却像个食松果的猢狲。我与你就身上取个姓氏,意思教你姓‘猢’。猢字去了 个兽傍,乃是古月。古者,老也;月者,阴也。老阴不能化育,教你姓‘狲’倒好。狲字去了兽傍,乃是个子系。子者,儿男也;系者,婴细也。正合婴儿之本论。教你姓‘孙’罢。”

“So you came here by stages,” the Patriarch remarked. “What is your surname?”

“I’m not surly,” the Monkey King replied. “If people call me names it doesn’t bother me, and if they hit me I don’t get angry. I’m just polite to them and that’s that. I’ve never been surly.”

“I didn’t ask if you were surly. I wanted to know the surname you inherited from your parents.”

“I didn’t have any parents,” the Monkey King replied.

“If you had no parents, did you grow on a tree?”

“I grew not on a tree but in a stone,” the Monkey King replied. “All I remember is that there was a magic stone on the top of the Flower and Fruit Mountain, and that one year the stone split open and I was born.”

Concealing his delight at searing this, the Patriarch remarked, “In other words, you were born of Heaven and Earth. Walk around for a moment and let me have a look at you.” The Monkey King leapt to his feet and shambled round a couple of times.

The Patriarch smiled and said, “Though you have rather a base sort of body, you look like one of the rhesus monkeys that eat pine seeds, and I ought to give you a surname that fits your appearance and call you Hu (‘Macaque’). The elements that make up the character Hu are ‘animal,’ ‘old’ and ‘moon’. What is old is ancient, and the moon embodies the Negative principle, and what is ancient and Negative cannot be transformed. But I think I would do much better to call you Sun (‘Monkey’). Apart from the ‘animal’ element, the character Sun has one part implying male and one part suggesting a baby, which fits in with my basic theories about children. Your surname will be Sun.”

猴王听说,满心欢喜,朝上叩头道:“好!好!好!今日方知姓也。万望师父慈悲!既然有姓,再乞赐个名字,却好呼唤。”祖师道:“我门中有 十二个字,分派起名到你乃第十辈之小徒矣。”猴王道:“那十二个字?”祖师道:“乃广、大、智、慧、真、如、性、海、颖、悟、圆、觉十二字。排到你,正当‘悟’字。与你起个法名叫做‘孙悟空’好么?”猴王笑道:“好!好!好!自今就叫做孙悟空也!” 正是:鸿蒙初辟原无姓,打破顽空须悟空。

When the Monkey King heard this he kowtowed with delight and said, “Great! Great! Now I have a surname. I am eternally grateful to you for your mercy and compassion, master. I beg you to give me a personal name to go with my new surname, then it will be much easier to address me.”

“There are twelve words within my sect,” said the Patriarch, “which I give as names. You belong to the tenth generation of my disciples.”

“What are these twelve words?” asked the Monkey King.

“Broad, great, wisdom, intelligence, true, likeness, nature, sea, bright, awakened, complete and enlightenment. If we work out the generations of disciples, then you should have a name with Wu (‘Awakened’) in it. So we can give you the Dharma−name Sun Wukong, which means ‘Monkey Awakened to Emptiness’. Will that do?”

“Marvellous, marvellous,” said the smiling Monkey King. “From now on my name will be Sun Wukong.”Indeed:

When the Great Vagueness was separated there were no surnames;
To smash foolish emptiness he had to be awakened to emptiness.

毕竟不之向后修些甚么道果,且听下回分解。

If you want to know what success he had in cultivating his conduct, you must listen to the explanation in the next installment.

20 thoughts on “Journey to the West Bilingual Guide

  1. You might fool children that this is a “bilingual guide to journey to the west,” but it is only the first of 100 chapters and you used someone else’s translation. Snicker!

  2. 是男儿总要走向远方,走向远方是为了让生命更辉煌。走在崎岖不平的路上,年轻的眼眸里装着梦更装着思想。不论是孤独地走着还是结伴同行,让每一个脚印都坚实而有力量。

Leave a Reply to charlie coller Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>